After a Windows Server 2003 Standard R2 to 2012 Standard R2 migration, I ran into some Group Policy issues.
This site only one one policy, which was a Group Policy Preference for mapped network drives.
Windows 7 machines worked fine. The 2012 R2 servers and Windows 10 workstations on the domain were not working.
Performing gpupdate /force on the affected workstations returned the following.
Similarily, the error returning in the System Event log was identical.
It turns out there was a few non-confirming changes made to the default domain policy, when the 2003 was the PDC. I had to reset the default domain policy to default, with the following tool dcgpofix on the new PDC. After a reboot of the workstations, everything was functioning well.